Hepatoprotective activity of extract of Homalium Letestui stem against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

Document Type : Original Article


1 Pharmacology and Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Gombe University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2 Pharmacology and Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

3 Pharmacology Dept., Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcort, Rivers State, Nigeria


 Background and aims: Homalium letestui Pellegr (Flacourtiaceae) is used traditionally by the Yorubas of Western Nigeria as an antidote and by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria to treat stomach ulcer, malaria and other inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of H. letestui stem (250-750 mg/kg) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats.
Methods: A total of 36 rats were divided into six groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 was administered with normal saline (10 ml/kg) for eight days, group 2 received CCl4, group 3 served as the standard group, while groups 4, 5 and 6 were administered p.o with 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of H. letestui stem extract, respectively, for 8 days. Liver function and histopathological parameters were investigatesd to assess hepatoprotective activity of the extract.
Results: Administration of the stem extract (250-750 mg/kg body weight) caused significant (p Conclusions: The plant may provide protection against substances that react with membrane lipids to induce peroxidation and subsequent dysfunction of membranes by acting as an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species. This positive effect may be similar to the established effects of certain substances such as silymarin, vitamin E, vitamin C and other free radical scavengers that reduce the toxic effects of CCl4, especially on the liver.


Main Subjects

1. Hutchinson T, Daziel JM. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 2. London: Crown Agents for overseas government; 1963. 421 – 433.
2. Bolza E, Keating WG. African Timbers: The Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 species. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia; 1972. 710.
3. Bouquet A, Debray M. Medicinal Plant of the Ivory Coast. Trav Doc Orstom, 32; 1974. 441.
4. Okokon JE Ita B, Udokpoh AE. Antiplasmodial Activity of Homalium letestui. Phytotherapy Research; 2006. 20, 949–951.
5. Okokon JE, Ahsana DF, Mohammed IC. Cellular Antioxidative, Cytotoxic, and Antileishmanial Activities of Homalium letestui. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine; 2013. 3, 35–44.
6. Okokon JE, Antia BS, Ita BN. Antidiabetic effects of Homalium letestui (Flacourtiaceae) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Res J Med Plants. 2007. 1: 134 - 138.
7. Okokon JE, Okokon PJ, Dar Farooq A, Choudhary MI. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Homalium letestui. Pharmaceutical Biology. ; 2013. 1459-66.
8. Okokon JE, Davies K. Psychopharmacological studies of Homalium letestui stem extract. J Pharmaceut Biol. 2014. 4: 158 – 164.
9. Ita B, Ngochindo R. Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Homalium letestui Stem. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences; 2014. 8, 416-422.
10. Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. Antiulcer and Anticonvulsant Activities of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacological Sciences; 2015. 4, 384-390.
11. Recknagel RO, Glende EA. Jr. Carbon tetrachloride Hepatotoxicity: An Example of Lethal Cleavage. Critical Reviews in Toxicology; 1973. 2, 263-297.
12. Seakins A, Robinson DS. The Effect of the administration of carbon tetrachloride on the formation of plasma lipoproteins in the rats. Biochemistry Journal; 86: 401-407.
13. Babu BH, Shylesh BS, Padikkala J. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Acanthus ilicifolius. Fitoterapia; 2001. 72, 272-277.
14. Bhattacharyya D, Mukherjee R, Pandit S, Das N, Sur NK. Prevention of Carbon tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats by Himoliv, a Polyherbal Formulation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology; 2003. 35, 183- 185.
15. Friedman LS, Martin P, Munoz SJ. Liver Function Tests and the Objective Evaluation of the Patient with Liver Disease. In: Zakin D, Boyer TD (Eds.), Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease, 3rd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia; 1996. 791.
16. Schalm OW, Jain NC, Croll EJ. Veterinary Hematology. (3rded), Philadelphia: Lea and Febigar; 1975. 498 – 512.
17. Adisa OA, Ajayi OA, Awujo NC, Thomas BN. Haemotolobiochemic Changes in Albino Rats Infected with Trypanosome Brucci brucei. Nigeria Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine; 1999. 9: 238 – 240.
18. Ezekiel JS, Onyeyili PA. Subacute Toxicity of Ethanol Root Extract from Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich in Rats. International Journal of Science and Technology; 2007. 4, 231-240.
19. Britton RS, Bacon BR. Role of Free Radicals in Liver Diseases and Hepatic Fibrosis. Hepatogastroenterology; 1994. 41, 343 -348.
20. Weber LWD, Boll M, Stamp A. Hepatotoxicity and Mechanism of Action of Haloalkanes: Carbon tetrachloride as a Toxicological Model. Critical Review of Toxicology; 2003. 33, 105-36.
21. Saraswat B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Anticholestic Effect of Picroliv, Active Hepatoprotective Principle of Picrorhiza kurroa, against Aarbon Tetrachloride Induced cholestatis. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology; 1993. 31: 316- 371.
22. Bhoopat, L., Srichairatanakool, S., Kanjanapothi, D., Taesotikul, T., Thananchai, H. and Bhoopat T. Hepatoprotective Effects of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): aCombination of Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. ; 2011. 136 (1): 55-66.
23. Naik SR, Panda VS. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Ginkgo biloba Phytosomes in Carbon tetrachloride-induced Liver Injury in Rodents. Liver International; 2007. 27, 393-399.