ANTI-ATHRITIC EFFECTS OF LIME, MAIZE HUSK EXTRACT AND ITS CO ADMINISTRATION ON WISTAR RATS

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515,

2 Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B.1515, Ilorin 240001, Nigeria

3 Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, AfeBabalola University, P.M.B. 5454, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Abstract

This study investigated the anti-arthritic effects of lime juice (LJ) and lime juice with maize husk extract (LJMHE) in Wistar rats. Arthritis was produced by formaldehyde model after the commencement of oral administration of LJ (2.5ml/kg and 5ml/kg), LJMHE (5ml/kg, 50mg/kg), vitamin C (ViC) (100mg/kg), saline (0.1ml) and indomethacin (5mg/kg/day). All administrations were given orally for 10 days. Daily changes in paw sizes were measured for 10 days. Serum urea (BUN), ferritin (SF), serum creatinine (SC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. The results showed that LJ, LJMHE and indomethacin produced consecutive reductions (p <0.05) in paw sizes from the 5th - 10th day. LJ and LJMHE performed better than Indomethacin while ViC did not produce any significant reduction in paw size. Likewise, LJ, LJMHE and ViC increased (p <0.05) BUN and reduced the serum concentration of CRP. There were no significant changes in the SF in groups treated with LJ (2.5mg/Kg) LJMHE and Indomethacin compared with control group (13.80 ± 0.60) whereas SF was increased in the groups treated with LJ (5mg/Kg) and ViC (21.12 ± 0.78 and 22.38 ± 0.10 ng/ml respectively). The study established the anti-arthritic effect of Lime Juice and Lime Juice with Maize Husk Extract which might be via the inhibition of CRP.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. M.C. de Castillo, C.G. de Allori, B.C. de Gutierrez, Bactericidal activity of lemon juice and lemon derivatives aginst Vibrio cholereaBiol Pharm Bull, 20 (2000) 1235-1238.
2. M. Gharagozloo, M. Doroudchi, A. Ghaderi, Effects of Citrus aurantifolia concentrated extract on the spontaneous proliferation ofMDA-MB-453 and RPMI-8866 tumor cell lines. Phytomedicine, 9(5), (2002) 475-477.
3. J. Xu, M.L. Go, L.Y. Lim, Modulation of digoxin transport across Caco-2 cell monolayersby citrus fruit juices: lime, lemon, grapefruitand pummelo. Pharm. Res., 20(2), (2003), 169-176.
4. I.A. Adeleye, L. Opiah, Antimicrobial activity of extracts of local cough mixtures on upper respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. West Indian Med. J., 52(3), (2003) 188- 190.
5. Rosaria Costa, Carlo Bisignano, Angela Filocamo, Elisa Grasso, Francesco Occhiuto, Federica Spadaro. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.)Swingle essential oil from Italian organic crops. J Essent Oil Res. 26 (6): (2008) 400-408.
6. K.A. Abo, A.A. Fred-Jaiyesimi, A.E.A. Jaiyesimi, Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used in management of diabetes mellitus in south western Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol; 115: (2014) 67-71.
7. L.S. Gill Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria.Uniben press, Benin, Nigeria. (1992), 249.
8. K. Ogawa, M. Takeuchi, N. Nakamura, Immunological effects of partially hydrolyzedarabinoxylan from corn husk in mice. BiosciBiotechnolBiochem; 69 (2005) 19-25.
9. B.V. Owoyele, M.N. Negedu, S.O. Olaniran, S.A. Onasanwo, S.O. Oguntoye, J.O. Sanya, S.A. Oyeleke, J.A. Ibidapo, A.O. Soladoye, Analgesic and Anti-inflamatory effects of aqueous extract of Zea mays Husk in male Wistar rats. J Med Food. 13(2): (2010) 343-7.
10. A. Guyton, Hall (2006): Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th Edition.
11. O.A. Olajide, J.M. Makinde, S.O. Awe, Effect of aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark corrageenan-induced Oedema and granuloma tissue formation on rats and mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 66(1), (1999) 113-117.
12. R.A. Greenwald, Animal models for evaluation of arthritic drugs, Method Find Clin Pharmacol, 13 (1991) 75-83.
13. M. Bendele, Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, J Musculoskel Neuron Interact, 1, 2001, 377-385.
14. S. Mendoza, M. Noa, M. Valle, N. Mendoza, R. Mas. Effects of D-002 on Formaldehyde-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy Volume 3, Issue 7, (2013) 09-12.
15. J. Devlin, R. Moots, D. Andrews, C. Boivin, P. Emery High intestinal permeability in patients with inflammatory arthritis is more strongly associated with any NSAID therapy than with diagnosis or disease activity. Arth Rheum; (1996) S280: 1513.
16. M. Attur, H. E. Al-Mussawir, J. Patel et al., “Prostaglandin E2 exerts catabolic effects in osteoarthritis cartilage: evidence for signaling via the EP4 receptor”. JImmunol. 181(7): (2008) 5082–5088.
17. Paller and Petrou, 2009
18. N. Sattar, A. Gaw, O. Scherbakova, et al. Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation, 108, (2003) 414–9.
19. M.K. Rutter, J.B. Meigs, L.M. Sullivan, R.B. D'Agostino, P.W. Wilson, C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation, 110: (2006) 380–5
20. Yunsheng Ma, Jennifer A Griffith, Lisa Chasan-Taber, Barbara C Olendzki, Elizabeth Jackson, Edward J Stanek, III, Wenjun Li, Sherry L Pagoto, Andrea R Hafner, Ira S Ockene, Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein.Am J ClinNutr. 83(4), (2006) 760–766.
21. FAO Document Repository; online publication produced by Agriculture and Consumer Protection; (Maize in human nutrition). Source: Bressani, Breuner and Ortiz, 1989.
22. C. Price, H. Finney, Developments in the assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Clinica Chimica Acta, 297(1-2) (2000) 55–66.
23. C. Burtis, E. Ashwood, D. Bruns, W. Tietz, Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2008.
24. R. Casiday, R. Frey, Iron Use and Storage in the Body: Ferritin and Molecular Representations. Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis (2000).
25. D.B.1. Kell, E. Pretorius, Serum ferritin is an important inflammatory disease marker, as it is mainly a leakage product from damaged cells. Metallomics. 6(4), (2014) 748-73.
26. A. Khan, W. M. Khan, M. Ayub, M. Humayun, M. Haroon, Ferritin is a marker of inflammation rather than iron deficiency in overweight and obese people. Journal of Obesity, (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1937320
27. Mission Pharmacal Company | San Antonio, TX 78230-1355 | Phone: 210.696.8400
28. M. Goralska, J. Harned, A.M. Grimes, L.N. Fleisher, M.C. McGahan, Mechanisms by which ascorbic acid increases ferritin levels in cultured lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 64(3), (1997) 413-21.
29. O.P. Garcia, M. Diaz, J.L. Rosado, L.H. Allen, Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr; 78(2), (2003) 267-73.