Evaluation of the drug synergistic and antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis on some urinary tract infection bacteria

Document Type : Original Article


1 darab pnu univercity

2 Fasa University of Medical Sciences

3 payam noor University


Background and aims: Urinary tract infection is considered as one of the most common clinical problems in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pharmaceutical and antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis on a number of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
Methods: In this experimental research, after drying leaves, extracts were prepared using methanol. The minimum lethal activity of 500, 250 and 125 µg/ml concentrations of the extracts on the standard bacteria was tested using disk diffusion and dilution method. In order to study the synergistic and antagonistic effect, a standard strains of bacteria was cultured on the medium containing methanol extract and then antibiotic discs were put on it.
Results: According to the results of disk diffusion test in Agar, the highest inhibition zone diameter in 500 µg/ml was related to Staphylococcus epidermidis and the minimum diameter in this concentration was related to E. coli. Study MIC results was showed that the extract of Callistemon viminalis  has the highest inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and epidermidis. The extracts of Callistemon viminalis showed synergistic effects with vancomycine and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidisProteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of Callistemon viminalis , alone or in combination with antibacterial agents may be useful in treatment of urinary tract infections. Additionally, this component can enhance the effect of some antibiotics; this implies its application, especially in drug resistance cases. 


Main Subjects

1. Indu MN, Hatha AAM, Abirosh C, Harsha U, Vivekanandan G. Antimicrobial activity of some of sound-indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, salmonella, listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila. Braz J Microbial. 2006; 37(2): 153-8.
2. Al-Bakri AG, Afifi FU. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration. J Microbiol Methods. 2007; 68(1): 19-25.
3. Ulukanlı Z, Akkaya A. Antibacterial activities of Marrubium catariifolium and Phlomis pungens var. hirta grown wild in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Int J Agric Biol. 2011; 13(1): 105-9.
4. Aine chi Y, Ahmadi K. Details of medicine and medicinal plants of Iran. 3th ed. Tehran: Tehran University Press; 2006.
5. Cock I. Antimicrobial activity of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon salignus methanolic extracts. Phcog Commn. 2012; 2(3): 50-7.
6. Harden GJ. Flora of New South Wales, Vol. 2. USA: New South Wales University Press: Kensington. 1991: 1-574.
7. Gohar AA, Maatooq GT, Gadara SR, Aboelmaaty WS. The profile and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G. Don Ex Loudon leaves. J Biotechnol Pharm Res. 2014; 5(1): 7-11.
8. Stead TY, Butler G. Your Australian garden Callistemon and other bottle brushes. D,G. 5th ed. Australia: Steadmemorial Wildlife Reserch Foundation, Melbourn; 1983.
9. Melendez EN. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico: Folklore y fundamentos científicos: La Editorial, UPR; 1982.
10. Morton JF. Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America: Bahamas to Yucatan: Charles C. Thomas; 1981.
11. Afrah J. Studing of antibacterial effect for leaves extract of Callistemon viminalis in vitro and vivo (uninary system) for rabbits. J Kerbala Univ.2012; 10(2): 246-54.
12. Nwanze P, Nwaru L, Oranusi S, Dimkpa U, Okwu M, Babatunde B, et al. Urinary tract infection in Okada village: Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Sci Res Essays. 2007; 2(4): 112-6.
13. Keah S, Wee E, Chng K, Keah K. Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired uropathogens in general practice. Malays Fam Physician. 2007; 2(2): 64-9.
14. Tanagho EA and Aninch JW. Smith's general urology. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Mc Grow Hill; 2000.
15. Kiaei E, Mazandarani M, Ghaemi A. The effect of ethanol extract of 7 species of medicinal plants against bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in the city of Gorgan. J Med Plants. 2010; 9(2): 74-83.
16. Talei Gh, Meshkat MH, Delfan B. Effect of antibacterial extracts Alaf, Goshan, evergreen and sumagh Lorry on number of Gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative. J Lorestan Univ Med Sci. 2003; 18(2): 19-23.
17. Motaharinia Y, Rezaee M, Zandi F, Hosseini W, Rashidi A, AminiPour E, et al. Comparison of the antifungal effect of licorice Root, Althoca officinalis Extracts and Ketoconazole on Malassezia Furfur. Armaghane Danesh. 2011; 16(5): 425-32.
18. Razaghparast A, Shams M, Yadegari M, Razaghi AM. Onions and some azole antifungal effects of the drugs individually and in combination, on the pathogenic yeast. J Kowsar Med. 2008; 13(2): 103-13.
19. Mashhadian N, Rakhshandeh H. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of Nigella sativa extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Pakestan J Med Sci. 2005; 21(1): 47-52.
20. Clinical and Laboratory Standards institute (CLSI). Performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 17th informational supplement, M11-A7. Wayne; 2007. Available from: https://www. researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?idassetKey.
21. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved standard M7-A6. USA: NCCLS, 2004.
22. Daneshmandi S, Soleimani N, Pourfathollah AA, Sattari M. Evaluation of the drug synergistic and antibacterial effects of Cuminum cyminum essential oil. Arak Med Univ J. 2010; 13(2): 75-82.
23. Hayouni EA, Abedrabba M, Bouix M, Hamdi M. The effects of solvents and extraction method on the phenolic contents and biological activities in vitro of Tunisian Quercus coccifera L. and Juniperus phoenicea L. fruit extracts. Food Chem. 2007; 105(3): 1126-34.
24. Melendez EN. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico: folklore fundamentos científicos. Spina: Univ Puerto Rico Pr; 1986.
25. Shahnaz H, Hifza A, Bushra K, Khan J. Lipid studies of Cuminum cyminum fixed oil. Pak J Bot. 2004; 36(2): 395-402.
26. Gachkar L, Yadegari D, Rezaei MB, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA, Rasooli I. Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Food Chem. 2007; 102(3): 898-904.
27. Huq F, Misra LN. An alkenol and C-methylated flavones from Callistemon lanceolatus leaves. Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 369-70.
28. Wollenweber E, Wehde R, Dorr M, Lang G, Stevens JF. C-methyl-flavonoids from the leaf waxes of some Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry. 2000; 55(8): 965-70.
29. Wrigley JW, Fagg M. Bottlebrushes, Paperbarks and tea trees and all other plants inn the leptospermum alliance. Sydney, Ustralia: Angus and Rovertson; 1993.
30. Tyler VE, Brady LR, Robbert JE. Pharmacoghosy. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1988.
31. Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. J Appl Bacteriol. 1995; 78(3): 264-9.
32. Mourey A, Canillac N. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of essential oils components of conifers. Food Control. 2002; 13(4): 289-92.
33. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med. 2001; 67(1): 81-3.
34. Viljoen A, van Vuuren S, Ernst E, Klepser M, Demirci B, Baser H, et al. Osmitopsis asteriscoides (Asteraceae)-the antimicrobial activity and essential oil composition of a Cape-Dutch remedy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 88(2-3): 137-43.
35. Delahaye C, Rainford L, Nicholson A, Mitchell S, Lindo J, Ahmad M. Antibacterial and antifungal analysis of crude extracts from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis. J Med Biol Sci. 2009; 3(1): 1-7.
36. Oyedeji OO, Lawal OA, Shode FO, Oyedeji AO. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon viminalis from South Africa. Molecules. 2009; 14(6): 1990-8.
37. Shinde P, Patil P, Bairagi V. Pharmacognostic, phytochemical properties and antibacterial activity of Callistemon citrinus viminalis leaves and stems. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012; 4: 406-8.
38. Quijano-celis C, Gaviria M, Vanegas-Lopez C, Pino JA. chemical Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Callistemon viminalis (Gaertn.) G. Don Leaves from colombia. J Essent Oil Bear Plant. 2010; 13(6): 710-716.