Effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of flower and fruit peel of Punica granatum on Leishmania major promastigotes in vitro

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

4 Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

Background and aims: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the endemic parasitic diseases in many regions of Iran for which there is currently no complete vaccine and effective drugs without drug resistance to prevent and treat it. Given the need to develop new drugs for the treatment of various diseases with fewer side effects, greater effects with shorter treatment periods, especially in anti-leishmaniasis drug compounds for drug-resistant types of the disease, it is essential to do research on plant compounds containing medicinal compounds to promote the treatment of this infection. The present study was performed to compare the in vitro effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of flower and fruit peel of Punica granatum on Leishmania major promastigotes.
Methods: Different dilutions of hydroalcoholic extracts of flower and fruit peel of P. granatum were prepared by the maceration method and their in vitro effects on L. major promastigote were investigated using MTT assay. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.
Results: The results showed that both hydroalcoholic extracts of flower and fruit peel of P. granatum could inhibit the parasite, but the extract fruit peel of P. granatum showed anti-leishmaniasis activity at lower concentrations compared to extract flower of P. granatum.
Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extracts of flower and fruit peel of P. granatum could inhibit the parasite, that probably due to the presence of some compounds such as ellagic acid with antioxidant properties and punicalagin with antimicrobial properties especially in fruit peel extract of P. granatum.

Keywords


1.Torres-Guerrero E, Quintanilla-Cedillo MR, Ruiz-Esmenjaud J, Arenas R. Leishmaniasis: a review. F1000Research. 2017;6.
2.Inceboz T. Epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis.  Current topics in neglected tropical diseases: IntechOpen London; 2019. p. 1-15.
3.Taheri AR, Sabouri Rad S, Molkara S. Systemic Treatments of Leishmaniasis: A Narrative Review. Rev Clin Med. 2019;6(3):91-7.
4.Gharirvand Eskandari E, Setorki M, Doudi M. Medicinal Plants With Antileishmanial Properties: A Review Study. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 2020;6(1):1-16.
5.Spínola V, Pinto J, Castilho PC. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of selected fruits from Madeira Island by HPLC-DAD–ESI-MSn and screening for their antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 2015;173:14-30.
6.Ismail T, Sestili P, Akhtar S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: a review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(2):397-405.
7.Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi N. Flavonoids from Punica granatum—potential antiperoxidative agents. Fitoterapia. 2005;76(2):181-6.
8.Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Reed JD, Krueger CG, Vaya J. Pomegranate phytochemicals: Taylor and Francis Group: New York; 2006.
9.Ferrazzano GF, Scioscia E, Sateriale D, Pastore G, Colicchio R, Pagliuca C, et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of pomegranate juice and peel extracts on cariogenic bacteria. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2152749.
10.Dahham SS, Ali MN, Tabassum H, Khan M. Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2010;9(3):273-81.
11.Dkhil MA. Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. Parasitol Res. 2013;112(7):2639-46.
12.Calzada F, Yépez-Mulia L, Aguilar A. In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;108(3):367-70.
13.Hong MY, Seeram NP, Heber D. Pomegranate polyphenols down-regulate expression of androgen-synthesizing genes in human prostate cancer cells overexpressing the androgen receptor. J Nutr Biochem. 2008;19(12):848-55.
14.Elliott JG. Application of antioxidant vitamins in foods and beverages: Developing nutraceuticals for the new millenium. J Food technol. 1999;53(2):46-8.
15.Živković I, Šavikin K, Živković J, Zdunić G, Janković T, Lazić D, et al. Antiviral Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extracts on Human Norovirus in Food Models and Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2021; 76(2):203-209.
16.Razani Z, Dastani M, Kazerani HR. Cardioprotective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice in patients with ischemic heart disease. Phytother Res. 2017;31(11):1731-8.
17.Elzayat EM, Auda SH, Alanazi FK, Al-Agamy MH. Evaluation of wound healing activity of henna, pomegranate and myrrh herbal ointment blend. Saudi Pharm J. 2018;26(5):733-8.
18.Mohammad SM, Kashani HH. Chemical composition of the plant Punica granatum L.(Pomegranate) and its effect on heart and cancer. J Med Plant Res. 2012;6(40):5306-10.
19.Pirbalouti AG, Koohpayeh A, Karimi I. The wound healing activity of flower extracts of Punica granatum and Achillea kellalensis in Wistar rats. Acta Pol Pharm. 2010;67(1):107-10.
20.Radovanović BC, Anđelković S, Radovanović AB, Anđelković MZ. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of polyphenol extracts from wild berry fruits grown in southeast Serbia. Trop J Pharm Res. 2013;12(5):813-9.
21.Schuster FL, Sullivan JJ. Cultivation of clinically significant hemoflagellates. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15(3):374-89.
22.Dutta A, Bandyopadhyay S, Mandal C, Chatterjee M. Development of a modified MTT assay for screening antimonial resistant field isolates of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitol Int. 2005;54(2):119-22.
23.Allahdin S, Khademvatan S, Hashemitabar M, Eskandari A. In vitro activity of Camellia sinensis extracts against L. major and L. infantum promastigotes using the colorometric MTT assay. Urmia Med J. 2014;25(10):893-900.
24.Chegeni AS, Ezatpour B, Mohebali M, Mahmoudvand H, Zibaei M, Ebrahimzadeh F, et al. Effect of peel and leaf extract of walnut (Juglans regia l.) on cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice. J Chem Pharm Sci. 2016;9(4):2490-5.
25.Farghi Yamchi A, Dabirzadeh M, Miri A. Effects of Methanolic Extract of Arctium lappa Root on Promastigotes and Amastigotes of Leishmania major (in vitro). Med  Lab J. 2016;10(5):50-45.
26.Ahmadi E, Abdollahi A, Fasihi Ramandi M, Namdar N, Musavi M, Samizadeh B. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract. J Fasa Univ Med Sci. 2016;6(3):319-25. eng.
27.Haddad MHF, Khodkar I, Samie M. In Vitro Anti-leishmanial Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts From Six Iranian Medicinal Herbs on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) Promastigotes. Jentashapir J Health Res. 2016;7(3):e33465.
28.Alkathiri B, El-Khadragy MF, Metwally DM, Al-Olayan EM, Bakhrebah MA, Abdel Moneim AE. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice shows antioxidant activity against cutaneous leishmaniasis-induced oxidative stress in female BALB/c mice. Int J Environ  Res Public health. 2017;14(12):1592.
29.Imperatori F, Barlozzari G, Scardigli A, Romani A, Macrì G, Polinori N, et al. Leishmanicidal activity of green tea leaves and pomegranate peel extracts on L. infantum. Nat Prod Res. 2019;33(24):3465-71.
30.García M, Monzote L, Montalvo AM, Scull R. Screening of medicinal plants against Leishmania amazonensis. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(9):1053-8.
31.García M, Monzote L, Scull R, Herrera P. Activity of Cuban plants extracts against Leishmania amazonensis. ISRN Pharmacol. 2012;2012: 104540.
32.Rakhshandehroo E, Asadpour M, Jafari A, Malekpour SH. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae. İstanbul Üniv Vet Fak Derg.2016;42(2):132-7.