Effect of hydro alcoholic extract of artichoke on diabetes treatment and liver enzymes in diabetic adult male rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Biology Dept., Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran

2 Biology Dept., Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, I.R. Iran


Background and aims: Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a plant of the Asteraceae family. This plant is used in herbal medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of artichokeextract on insulin, glucagon, glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats weighting 220-200 g were used. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups including, control, diabetic and 2 diabetic experimental groups. Two experimental groups respectively received 100 and 300 mg/kg of artichoke hydro ethanol extract as intraperitoneal for 6 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. At the end of the sixth day, blood was taken from the heart of animals. Afterward serum concentration of insulin, glucagon, glucose, ALP, ALT and AST were measured. Then, the parameters measured in the different groups were compared with a control group. Data were evaluated by ANOVA, Duncan test and Students t-test. Results: Results showed that artichoke extract significantly reduced the levels of glucagon, glucose, ALP, ALT, AST and increased insulin level compared to control and diabetic groups. It is worth noting that before the experiment, parameters tested were equal in all groups. Conclusion: Artichoke reduces blood sugar so it has a role in treatment of diabetes. Additionally, this herb is effective in control of blood glucose by liver enzymes reducing.


1. M.C. de Castillo, C.G. de Allori, B.C. de Gutierrez, Bactericidal activity of lemon juice and lemon derivatives aginst Vibrio cholereaBiol Pharm Bull, 20 (2000) 1235-1238.
2. M. Gharagozloo, M. Doroudchi, A. Ghaderi, Effects of Citrus aurantifolia concentrated extract on the spontaneous proliferation ofMDA-MB-453 and RPMI-8866 tumor cell lines. Phytomedicine, 9(5), (2002) 475-477.
3. J. Xu, M.L. Go, L.Y. Lim, Modulation of digoxin transport across Caco-2 cell monolayersby citrus fruit juices: lime, lemon, grapefruitand pummelo. Pharm. Res., 20(2), (2003), 169-176.
4. I.A. Adeleye, L. Opiah, Antimicrobial activity of extracts of local cough mixtures on upper respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. West Indian Med. J., 52(3), (2003) 188- 190.
5. Rosaria Costa, Carlo Bisignano, Angela Filocamo, Elisa Grasso, Francesco Occhiuto, Federica Spadaro. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.)Swingle essential oil from Italian organic crops. J Essent Oil Res. 26 (6): (2008) 400-408.
6. K.A. Abo, A.A. Fred-Jaiyesimi, A.E.A. Jaiyesimi, Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used in management of diabetes mellitus in south western Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol; 115: (2014) 67-71.
7. L.S. Gill Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria.Uniben press, Benin, Nigeria. (1992), 249.
8. K. Ogawa, M. Takeuchi, N. Nakamura, Immunological effects of partially hydrolyzedarabinoxylan from corn husk in mice. BiosciBiotechnolBiochem; 69 (2005) 19-25.
9. B.V. Owoyele, M.N. Negedu, S.O. Olaniran, S.A. Onasanwo, S.O. Oguntoye, J.O. Sanya, S.A. Oyeleke, J.A. Ibidapo, A.O. Soladoye, Analgesic and Anti-inflamatory effects of aqueous extract of Zea mays Husk in male Wistar rats. J Med Food. 13(2): (2010) 343-7.
10. A. Guyton, Hall (2006): Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th Edition.
11. O.A. Olajide, J.M. Makinde, S.O. Awe, Effect of aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark corrageenan-induced Oedema and granuloma tissue formation on rats and mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 66(1), (1999) 113-117.
12. R.A. Greenwald, Animal models for evaluation of arthritic drugs, Method Find Clin Pharmacol, 13 (1991) 75-83.
13. M. Bendele, Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, J Musculoskel Neuron Interact, 1, 2001, 377-385.
14. S. Mendoza, M. Noa, M. Valle, N. Mendoza, R. Mas. Effects of D-002 on Formaldehyde-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy Volume 3, Issue 7, (2013) 09-12.
15. J. Devlin, R. Moots, D. Andrews, C. Boivin, P. Emery High intestinal permeability in patients with inflammatory arthritis is more strongly associated with any NSAID therapy than with diagnosis or disease activity. Arth Rheum; (1996) S280: 1513.
16. M. Attur, H. E. Al-Mussawir, J. Patel et al., “Prostaglandin E2 exerts catabolic effects in osteoarthritis cartilage: evidence for signaling via the EP4 receptor”. JImmunol. 181(7): (2008) 5082–5088.
17. Paller and Petrou, 2009
18. N. Sattar, A. Gaw, O. Scherbakova, et al. Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation, 108, (2003) 414–9.
19. M.K. Rutter, J.B. Meigs, L.M. Sullivan, R.B. D'Agostino, P.W. Wilson, C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation, 110: (2006) 380–5
20. Yunsheng Ma, Jennifer A Griffith, Lisa Chasan-Taber, Barbara C Olendzki, Elizabeth Jackson, Edward J Stanek, III, Wenjun Li, Sherry L Pagoto, Andrea R Hafner, Ira S Ockene, Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein.Am J ClinNutr. 83(4), (2006) 760–766.
21. FAO Document Repository; online publication produced by Agriculture and Consumer Protection; (Maize in human nutrition). Source: Bressani, Breuner and Ortiz, 1989.
22. C. Price, H. Finney, Developments in the assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Clinica Chimica Acta, 297(1-2) (2000) 55–66.
23. C. Burtis, E. Ashwood, D. Bruns, W. Tietz, Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2008.
24. R. Casiday, R. Frey, Iron Use and Storage in the Body: Ferritin and Molecular Representations. Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis (2000).
25. D.B.1. Kell, E. Pretorius, Serum ferritin is an important inflammatory disease marker, as it is mainly a leakage product from damaged cells. Metallomics. 6(4), (2014) 748-73.
26. A. Khan, W. M. Khan, M. Ayub, M. Humayun, M. Haroon, Ferritin is a marker of inflammation rather than iron deficiency in overweight and obese people. Journal of Obesity, (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1937320
27. Mission Pharmacal Company | San Antonio, TX 78230-1355 | Phone: 210.696.8400
28. M. Goralska, J. Harned, A.M. Grimes, L.N. Fleisher, M.C. McGahan, Mechanisms by which ascorbic acid increases ferritin levels in cultured lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 64(3), (1997) 413-21.
29. O.P. Garcia, M. Diaz, J.L. Rosado, L.H. Allen, Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr; 78(2), (2003) 267-73.

1. Sarah SB, Griffitis H. Dietary antioxidant interventions in type 2 diabetes pations: a metaanalysis. Br J Diabetes Vascular DIS. 2011; 11(2): 62-8.
2. Irvine C, Taylor NF. Progressive resistanse exercise improves glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aust J Physiother. 2009; 55(4): 237-46.
3. Bagheri P, Delshad Noghabi A, Moshki M. The Effect of fasting on metabolic syndrome changes in type 2 diabetic people. Horizon Med Sci. 2014; 20(1): 35-41.
4. Dourandishan M, Hossieni M, Malekaneh M, Bagherzade G. Effect of Otostegia persica’s root extract on the blood biochemical factors in diabetic hyperlipidemic rats. Horizon Med Sci. 2014; 20(1): 17-21.
5. Rezaei E, Hosseini SE, Mehrabani D. Effects of pomegranate juice on insulin and glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic male rats. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2013; 20 (3): 244-51.
6. Hosseini SE, Karimzadeh K, Vessal M. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Walnut male flowers on diabetic rats. Zahedan J Med Sci. 2013; 15(11): 55-8.
7. Nazni P. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Cynara scolymus among selected type2 diabetic endividuals. Pak J Nutr. 2008; 34(5): 147-51.
8. Dendougui H, Maurice J, Fadila B, Benayache S. Flavonoids from anvilleayadiata coss and asteraceae. Biochem Sys Ecol. 2006; 34(15): 718-20.
9.Heidarian E, Soofiniya Y, Hajihosseini R. The effect of aerial part of Cynara scolymus extract on the hyperlipidemia, plasma antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase activity in diabetic rats. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2011; 13(5): 1-9.
10. Pitter MH, Thompson CJ, Ernst E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 7(4): 3335-40.
11. Mehmetick G, Ozdemirler G, Kocak Toker N, Cevikbas U, uysal M. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced Liver injury and oxidative stress. Exp toxicol Pathol. 2008; 60(6): 475-80.
12. Ahmadi Mahmoodabadi N, Madani H, Mahzooni P, Vahdati A.Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic cynara scolymus extract on  appearance of type 1 diabetes mellitus in mail rats. Iran J diabetes Obes. 2007; 6(1): 37-44.
13. Xu Q, Lu J, Wang R, Wu F, Cao J, Chen X. A novel model of acute liver injury in mice induced by T cell-mediated immune response to lactosylated bovine serum albumin. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006; 144(1): 125-33.
14. Lenzen S. The mechanisms of alloxan and sterptozotocin-induced Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008; 51(2): 216-26.
15. Chalfoun-Mounayar A, Nemr R, Yared P, Khairallah S, Chahine R. Antioxidant and weight loss effects of Pomegranate Molasses. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2012; 2(6): 45-50.
16. Hassan AG, Hamdy T, Reda AH, Bahira H.C-Ethion residues in soybean seeds: metabolic pathway, effect of processing, bioavailability, toxicity and protective action of artichoke leaf powder towards rats. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2013; 95(2): 288-303.
17. HosseiniSE, Mehrabani D, Rezaei  E. Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Liver Enzymes (ALT, ALP, AST) in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats. J Anim physiol Dev. 2014; 7(1): 59-64.
18. Madani H, Talebolhosseini M, Ahmadi Mahmoodabadi N, Mahzooni P, Vahdati A. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidic effects of Cynara scolymus “family of compositae” on Alloxan diabetic rats compared with galibenglamid. Iran J Biol. 2009; 22(2): 371-80.
19. Narenjkar J, Roghani M, Sedaghat R, Thami M. Evaluation of the effect of Cynara scolymus L. Feeding on serum glucose and lipid in female diabetic rats. Daneshvar Med. 2009; 16(83): 1-9.
20. Ferracane R, Pellegrini N, Visconti A, Graziani G, Chiavaro E, Miglio C, et al. Effects of different cooking methods on antioxidant profile, antioxidant capacity, and physical characteristics of artichoke. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(18): 8601-8.
21. Fritsche J, Beindorff C, Dachtler M, Zhang H, Lammers J. Isolation, characterization and determination ofminor artichoke (Cynarascolymus L.) leafextract compounds. Eur Food Res Technol. 2002; 215(2): 149-57.
22. Ashok KT, Madhusudana J. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic of phytochemical: Present status and future prospects. Current Sci. 2002; 283(10): 30-8.
23. Andrade-cetto A, Wiedenfeld H. Hypoglycemic effect of Cecropia obtusifolia on streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 78(2): 145-9.
24. Jelodar GA, Maleki M, Motadayen MH, Sirus S. Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Med Sci. 2005; 59(2): 64-9.
25. BonnefoutRousselot D, Bastard JP, Jaudon MC, Delattre J. Consequences of the diabetic status on the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Diabetes Metab. 2000; 26(3): 163-76.